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蜱蟲叮咬引發的紅肉過敏癥在美國越來越常見

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More than 100,000 people in the United States have become allergic to red meat since 2010 in reaction to tick bites, the government reports.

政府報告稱,自2010年以來,美國已有超過10萬人因蜱蟲叮咬而對紅肉過敏。

Medical researchers say they believe many more people have the allergy and do not know it.

醫學研究人員表示,他們認為有更多的人患有紅肉過敏癥,但他們并不知道。

The National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released two reports on the subject recently.

美國疾病控制與預防中心最近發布了兩份關于這一主題的報告。

Ticks are very small animals that feed on the blood of other animals.

蜱蟲是一種非常小的動物,以其他動物的血液為食。

One report estimated that as many as 450,000 Americans have developed the meat allergy.

一份報告估計,多達45萬美國人患有紅肉過敏癥。

That would make it the 10th most common food allergy in the U.S., said Dr. Scott Commins.

斯科特·康明斯博士說,這將會使其成為美國第十大最常見的食物過敏癥。

The University of North Carolina researcher co-wrote both reports.

這位北卡羅來納大學的研究員與其他人共同撰寫了這兩份報告。

Health officials said they do not know of any confirmed deaths.

衛生官員表示,他們還沒有確認是否有死亡病例。

However, people with the allergy have described it as strange and terrifying.

然而,患有紅肉過敏癥的人形容它是奇怪和可怕的。

"I never connected it with any food because it was hours after eating," said one patient, Bernadine Heller-Greenman.

一位名叫伯納丁·海勒-格林曼的病人說:“我從來沒有把它與任何食物聯系起來,因為它是在吃完幾個小時后才過敏的。”

The reaction, called alpha-gal syndrome, happens when an infected person eats beef, pork, or other meat of mammals.

這種反應被稱為α-半乳糖綜合征,當感染者食用牛肉、豬肉或其他哺乳動物的肉時就會出現這種反應。

Taking in other mammal products, such as milk, also causes the reaction.

攝入其他哺乳動物產品,如牛奶,也會引起這種反應。

A sugar called alpha-gal exists in mammal meat and in the saliva of ticks.

哺乳動物的肉和蜱蟲的唾液中存在一種名為α-半乳糖的糖。

When the sugar enters the body through the skin, the body's own defense, or immune, system reacts too strongly.

當α-半乳糖通過皮膚進入人體時,人體自身的防御(即免疫)系統反應過于強烈。

Scientists saw such reactions in patients taking a cancer drug that was made in mouse cells containing the alpha-gal sugar.

科學家在服用一種抗癌藥物的患者身上看到了這種反應,這種藥物是在含有α-半乳糖的老鼠細胞中制造的。

But in 2011 researchers first reported that it could spread through tick bites, too.

但在2011年,研究人員首次報告稱,它也可以通過蜱蟲叮咬傳播。

They tied it to the lone star tick.

他們把它和美洲花蜱聯系起來。

Scientists say the ticks live mainly in the eastern and southern U.S.

科學家表示,這種蜱蟲主要生活在美國東部和南部。

One of the studies released recently examined test results from the main U.S. private laboratory looking for alpha-gal antibodies.

最近公布的一項研究檢查了美國主要私人實驗室尋找α-半乳糖抗體的測試結果。

Those tests showed the number of people who had the antibodies rose from about 13,000 in 2017 to 19,000 in 2022.

這些測試顯示,攜帶抗體的人數從2017年的約1.3萬人增加到2022年的1.9萬人。

Experts say cases may have increased for several reasons.

專家表示,病例數增加可能有幾個原因。

They say the lone star tick population is expanding.

他們說,美洲花蜱的數量正在增加。

They also suggest more doctors might be learning about the disease and ordering tests for it.

他們還表示,可能會有更多的醫生了解這種疾病,并對其進行測試。

But many doctors are not.

但許多醫生并非如此。

The second study was based on a survey last year of 1,500 U.S. general care doctors and health professionals.

第二項研究是基于去年對1500名美國普通護理醫生和衛生專業人員的調查進行的。

It found nearly half of them had never heard of alpha-gal syndrome, and only five percent said they felt very sure they could identify it.

它發現,其中近一半的人從未聽說過α-半乳糖綜合征,只有5%的人表示,他們非常確定自己能識別出這種疾病。

Researchers used that information to estimate the number of people with the allergy — 450,000.

研究人員利用這些信息估計了紅肉過敏患者的數量為45萬人。

People with this condition can experience symptoms including hives, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe stomach pain, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the lips, throat, tongue or eyes.

患有這種疾病的人可能會出現蕁麻疹、惡心、嘔吐、腹瀉、劇烈胃痛、呼吸困難以及嘴唇、喉嚨、舌頭或眼睛腫脹等癥狀。

Unlike some other food allergies, which happen soon after eating, these reactions hit hours later.

食用其他一些食物過敏時癥狀會在進食后不久出現,而這些反應在幾個小時后才會發生。

Some patients have only stomach symptoms.

一些患者只有胃部癥狀。

The American Gastroenterological Association says people with unexplained diarrhea, nausea and stomach pain should be tested for the syndrome.

美國胃腸病學會表示,有不明原因的腹瀉、惡心和胃痛的人應該檢測是否患有這種綜合征。

Doctors advise people with the allergy to stop eating meat and other foods that cause the reaction and to have epinephrine available to them at all times.

醫生建議過敏患者停止食用肉類和其他引起過敏反應的食物,并隨時準備注射腎上腺素。

And, doctors say, avoid tick bites.

醫生還說,要避免被蜱蟲叮咬。

The allergy can go away in some people.

有些人的過敏癥狀可能會消失。

Commins said he has seen that happen in about 15 to 20 percent of his patients.

康明斯說,他在大約15%到20%的患者身上看到過這種情況。

Staying free of tick bites is extremely important.

避免被蜱蟲叮咬是極其重要的。

"The tick bites are central to this. They perpetuate the allergy," he said.

他說:“蜱蟲叮咬是這種疾病的核心。它們會使過敏癥狀持續存在。”

One of his patients is Heller-Greenman, a 78-year-old art historian in New York.

他的病人之一是紐約78歲的藝術史學家海勒-格林曼。

She spends summers on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.

她在馬薩諸塞州的瑪莎葡萄園島度過夏天。

She said she is used to getting bitten by ticks on the island.

她說,她已經習慣了在島上被蜱蟲叮咬。

She has had Lyme disease, also caused by tick bites, four times.

她患過四次萊姆病,也是由蜱蟲叮咬引起的。

About five years ago, Heller-Greenman started experiencing terrible, itchy hives on her back, middle and legs in the middle of the night.

大約五年前,海勒-格林曼開始發現自己的背部、身體中部和雙腿上在半夜出現可怕的發癢的蕁麻疹。

Her doctors decided it was an allergic reaction but could not identify the cause.

她的醫生認為這是過敏反應,但無法確定原因。

She never ate a lot of meat, but one day in January 2020 she had two beef meals in a row.

她從來不吃很多肉,但2020年1月的一天,她連續吃了兩頓牛肉。

Six hours after eating the second, she woke up nauseated, then vomited, had diarrhea and a lack of balance, or dizziness.

食用第二頓牛肉六個小時后,她醒來后感到惡心,然后嘔吐,腹瀉,身體失去平衡(即頭暈)。

She passed out three times.

她昏倒了三次。

Doctors identified alpha-gal syndrome as the cause soon after the incident.

醫生在該事故發生后不久就確定了她患有α-半乳糖綜合征。

Heller-Greenman was told to avoid ticks and to stop eating red meat and milk products.

海勒-格林曼被告知避免蜱蟲,并停止食用紅肉和奶制品。

There have been no allergic reactions since.

從那以后就沒有過敏反應了。

"I have one grandchild that watches me like a hawk," she said, making sure she reads food labels and avoids foods that could cause a reaction.

“我有一個孫子,他像鷹一樣盯著我,”她說,她一定要閱讀食品標簽,避免吃可能會引起過敏反應的食物。

"I feel very lucky, really, that this has worked out for me," she said.

她說:“我感到非常幸運,這對我來說很有效”。

"Not all doctors are knowledgeable about this."

“并不是所有的醫生都了解這一點。”

I'm Andrew Smith. And I'm Caty Weaver.

安德魯·史密斯、凱蒂·韋弗為您共同播報。

譯文為可可英語翻譯,未經授權請勿轉載!

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
syndrome ['sindrəum]

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n. 綜合癥,典型表現

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weaver ['wi:və]

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n. 織布者,織工

 
prevention [pri'venʃən]

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n. 阻止,妨礙,預防

 
allergy ['ælədʒi]

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n. 過敏癥,反感,厭惡

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identify [ai'dentifai]

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vt. 識別,認明,鑒定
vi. 認同,感同身

 
knowledgeable ['nɔlidʒəbl]

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adj. 博學的,有見識的

 
unexplained

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adj. 未經解釋的;未經說明的;不清楚的

 
ordering ['ɔ:dəriŋ]

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n. [計]定序;排序;訂購 v. 命令;指揮;訂購(o

 
population [.pɔpju'leiʃən]

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n. 人口 ,(全體)居民,人數

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expanding [iks'pændiŋ]

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擴展的,擴充的

 
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