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蓋茨基金會2023年信(3) (中英對照)

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Malaria: Equipping partners to end the disease


By the turn of this century, malaria had been eliminated in wealthy nations yet still killed nearly a million people a year – mostly young children – in poorer countries. So we joined with other organizations working to reduce the burden of this preventable disease, dedicating billions of dollars to the effort. This past September, the foundation announced a US$912 million commitment over three years to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

到本世紀初,瘧疾在富裕國家已被消滅,但在貧困國家每年仍有近百萬人因瘧疾死亡, 其中大多數是兒童。因此,我們與其他組織一同致力于減輕這一可預防疾病的負擔,并為此投入了數十億美元。去年9月,蓋茨基金會宣布將在三年內向抗擊艾滋病、結核病和瘧疾全球基金提供9.12億美元。

Our biggest contribution over the years, though, may not have been the money. In 2007, Melinda posed a challenge to the global health community: Rather than merely reduce the threat of malaria, why not totally eradicate it? From there, we plotted backwards: What actions would get the world to zero cases? Of those, which would be unlikely to happen if we didn't play a role?


Our influence hasn't really been about what we can make happen. (Our contribution to the Global Fund, after all, is only about 6% of what it raises from all donors.) It's about how we help others make a huge impact.


We have funded R&D for and gotten private-sector companies to focus on not just the next generation of diagnostic tools, bed nets, and medicines, but also the generation after that. That includes work agreements we've reached with pharmaceutical companies so they produce drugs that benefit low-income populations, even though those products don't have high profit margins. We've helped some countries export their knowledge – like China, which eliminated malaria within its borders and now lends its expertise to African countries – and helped others strengthen measurement systems and analytic capacity so they can use data to tailor malaria interventions to local needs. And we fund the training of African entomologists and national malaria program staff, so that there will always be a vibrant community of experts to see the fight to the end.


All along, Bill, Melinda, and I have spent a lot of time trying to convince leaders to dedicate more money to fighting malaria and other diseases that disproportionately affect people living in poverty.


By all accounts, the fight has been a big success. While malaria deaths have increased during the pandemic, from 2000 to 2020 the death rate dropped by nearly 50%. We're optimistic that cases could fall even more over the next few years, thanks to several promising innovations in the works, including a preventive therapy that uses monoclonal antibodies and ways to rid areas of the most deadly mosquitos (by killing them with sugar bait traps or using genetic technology to stop disease transmission).

這場戰斗取得了公認的成功。雖然瘧疾死亡人數在新冠大流行期間有所上升,但從2000年到2020年,瘧疾死亡率下降了近50%。我們樂觀地認為,得益于正在進行的幾項大有前景的創新,包括使用單克隆抗體的預防性治療,以及消滅最致命蚊子的方法(通過糖餌陷阱殺死它們或使用基因技術阻止疾病傳播),瘧疾病例在未來幾年還會進一 步下降。

Despite this progress, people have raised good questions about our work. They ask whether resources spent on specific diseases would be better spent on improving overall health systems. They suggest that eradication is an unrealistic goal. And they critique the foundation for playing what they see as an outsized role.


We agree that funding health systems is important, so we do that too, in Ethiopia, India, and other countries. We agree that calling for malaria eradication is audacious, but we knew that any lesser goal would mean continued suffering.


On the size of our role, I agree, in a way: It's not right for a private philanthropy to be one of the largest funders of multinational global health efforts. Countries should fully fund them. But consider the example of the World Health Organization. Where we share common goals, like eradicating malaria, we fund WHO programs. As countries have decreased their contributions, we've become the second-largest donor. I'd love it if many more governments would pass us on that list – because that would mean more lives saved.


重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
eradication [iræfi'keiʃən]


n. 根除

foundation [faun'deiʃən]


n. 基礎,根據,建立
n. 粉底霜,基

audacious [ɔ:'deiʃəs]


adj. 無畏的,放肆的,大膽創新的

eradicate [i'rædikeit]


v. 根除,撲減,根絕

impact ['impækt,im'pækt]


n. 沖擊(力), 沖突,影響(力)

merely ['miəli]


adv. 僅僅,只不過

specific [spi'sifik]


adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

preventable [pri'ventəbl, pri:-]


adj. 可預防的;可阻止的;可防止的

expertise [.ekspə:'ti:z]


n. 專家的意見,專門技術

contribution [.kɔntri'bju:ʃən]


n. 貢獻,捐款(贈)